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Impact of monoclonal antibody treatment on hospitalization and mortality among non-hospitalized adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Authors: J Ryan Bariola, Erin K McCreary, Richard J Wadas, Kevin E Kip, Oscar C Marroquin, Tami Minnier, Stephen Koscumb, Kevin Collins, Mark Schmidhofer, Judith A Shovel, Mary Kay Wisniewski, Colleen Sullivan, Donald M Yealy, David A Nace, David T Huang, Ghady Haidar, Tina Khadem, Kelsey Linstrum, Christopher W Seymour, Stephanie K Montgomery, Derek C Angus, Graham M Snyder

Summary:

Background: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment may prevent complications of COVID-19. We sought to quantify the impact of bamlanivimab monotherapy on hospitalizations and mortality, as well as Emergency Department (ED) visits without hospitalization, among outpatients at high risk of COVID-19 complications.

Methods: We compared patients receiving mAb to patients who met criteria but did not receive mAb from December 2020 through March 2021. The study population selection used propensity scores to match 1:1 by likelihood to receive mAb. The primary outcome was hospitalization or all-cause mortality within 28 days; the secondary outcome was hospitalization or ED visit without hospitalization within 28 days. Odds ratios (OR) calculation used logistic regression modeling including propensity score and mAb receipt predictors.

Results: The study population included 234 patients receiving mAb and 234 matched comparator patients not receiving mAb. Patients receiving mAb were less likely to experience hospitalization or mortality (OR 0.31, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.17-0.56, p=0.00001) and hospitalization or ED visit without hospitalization (OR 0.50, 95%CI 0.43-0.83, p=0.007). The impact of mAb was more pronounced in prevention of hospitalization (among all age groups, OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.66, p=0.001) than mortality or ED visit without hospitalization, and most strongly associated with patients age 65 years and older (primary outcome OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.14-0.56, p=0.0003).

Conclusions: Bamlanivimab monotherapy was associated with reduction in the composite outcome of hospitalizations and mortality in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19. The benefit may be strongest in preventing hospitalization in patients ages 65 years or older.

Source: medRxiv, March 30, 2021