Periodontal dysbiosis associates with reduced CSF Aβ42 in cognitively normal elderly

Authors: Angela R. Kamer, Smruti Pushalkar, Deepthi Gulivindala, Tracy Butler, Yi Li, Kumar Raghava Chowdary Annam, Lidia Glodzik, Karla V. Ballman, Patricia M. Corby, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Deepak Saxena, Mony J. Leon


Introduction: Periodontal disease is a chronic, inflammatory bacterial dysbiosis that is associated with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome.

Methods: A total of 48 elderly cognitively normal subjects were evaluated for differences in subgingival periodontal bacteria (assayed by 16S rRNA sequencing) between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker groups of amyloid and neurofibrillary pathology. A dysbiotic index (DI) was defined at the genus level as the abundance ratio of known periodontal bacteria to healthy bacteria. Analysis of variance/analysis of covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA), linear discriminant effect‐size analyses (LEfSe) were used to determine the bacterial genera and species differences between the CSF biomarker groups.

Results: At genera and species levels, higher subgingival periodontal dysbiosis was associated with reduced CSF amyloid beta (Aβ)42 (P = 0.02 and 0.01) but not with P‐tau.

Discussion: We show a selective relationship between periodontal disease bacterial dysbiosis and CSF biomarkers of amyloidosis, but not for tau. Further modeling is needed to establish the direct link between oral bacteria and Aβ.

Source: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 2021; 13 (1)